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Wednesday , December 19 2018
Home / Freight Institute News / Ferro Alloys
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Ferro Alloys

Ferro Alloys

Description / Application

Production and consumption
Ferro alloys are produced by adding chemical elements into molten metal, usually during steelmaking. They impart distinctive qualities to steel and cast iron or serve important functions during production and are, therefore, closely associated with the iron and steel industry, the leading consumer of ferroalloys.

Ferrochromium
An alloy composed principally of iron and chromium used as a means of adding chromium to steels (low-medium-, and high-carbon) and to cast iron. Available in several classifications and grades, generally containing between 60-70% chromium, in crushed sizes and lumps up to 75 pounds which readily dissolve in molten steel.

Ferromanganese
An alloy consisting of manganese (approx. 48%) plus iron and carbon. Available in standard, low-carbon, and medium carbon grades in ground, crushed, and lump sizes ranging from 80 mesh to 75-lb lumps, suitable for ladle or furnace addition. Use: vehicle for adding manganese to steel.

Ferromolybdenum
An alloy composed largely of iron and molybdenum used as a means of adding molybdenum to steel. Engineering steels rarely contain more than 1% molybdenum, stainless steels may contain 3%, and tool steels as much as 10%. Ferromolybdenum is available in several grades in which molybdenum ranged from 55 to 75% and the maximum carbon content is either 1,10%, 0,60% or 2,50%. It is generally added in the furnace since it does not oxidize under steel-making conditions. Melting point approx. 1630°C. Available in crushed sizes up to one inch.
Ferro_Alloys
Ferrosilicon
An alloy of iron and silicon used to add silicon to steel and iron. Insoluble in water. Small quantities of silicon deoxidize the iron and larger amounts impart special properties. Available in six grades containing from 20 to 95% silicon. The 20% grade is made in a blast furnace, but grades of higher silicon content are made in electric furnaces. Hazard: Ferrosilicon containing from 30 to 90% silicon is flammable and evolves gases in presence of moisture. Use: Pidgeon process for producing metallic magnesium.

Ferrotitanium
An alloy composed principally of iron and titanium used to add titanium to steel. It is often made from titanium scrap. Three classifications are available: low, high and medium carbon content. Furnished in various lump, crushed and ground sizes.

Ferrotungsten
An alloy of iron and tungsten used as a means of adding tungsten to steel. Contains 70 to 80% tungsten and no more than 0,6% carbon. Melting range 1648-2750°C, dissolves readily in molten steel. Furnished in ground and crushed sizes up to one inch.

Ferrovanadium
An iron-vanadium alloy used to add vanadium to steel. Vanadium is used in engineering steels to the extent of 0,1-0,25% and in high speed steels to the extent of 1-2,5% or higher. Melting range 1482-1521°C. Furnished in a variety of lump, crushed, and ground sizes.

Derivation: by reduction of the oxide with aluminium or silicon in presence of iron in an electric furnace.
Grade: available containing from 50 to 80% vanadium.
Hazard: Moderate fire risk. TLV: (dust) 1 mg/m3 of air.

Additional information on Ferrosilicon
Ferrosilicon (In bulk in containers)
A chemical containing silicon and iron. Mixing with water and air may produce an explosive mixture.

Certificates should be provided by manufacturer, store in mechanically ventilated space. Check for presence of phosphine and arsine gas before entering a space.

Ferrosilicon (In intermediate bulk containers – IBC’s)
A chemical containing silicon and iron. Mixing with water and air may produce an explosive mixture.

Certificates should be provided by manufacturer, store in mechanically ventilated space. Check for presence of phosphine and arsine gas before entering a space.

Ferrosilicon (Packaged)
A chemical containing silicon and iron. Mixing with water and air may produce an explosive mixture. Certificates should be provided by manufacturer, store in mechanically ventilated space. Check for presence of phosphine and arsine gas before entering a space.

May be subject to IMDG code

There are various types of this commodity both IMDG classified and non-IMDG classified.

Loading of Ferrosilicon in bulk in ordinary DC is allowed when the following measures are taken to protect containers: The sides are to be lined by plywood sheets, and the floor to be covered by thick plastic stretching up on the sides by about 30 cm. As well for security reasons a suitable bulkhead is to be installed facing the doors.

Due heavy weight of this cargo a full 20 ft container load is about 80/120 cm high max.

When silicon content is above 30% but less than 90% the ferrosilicon becomes regulated under the IMDG Code under UNNO 1408. In contact with moisture, water, alkalis or acids, may evolve hydrogen, a flammable gas, which may form explosive mixtures with air, and also arsine and phosphine, which are highly toxic gases. These gases are evolved in proportions which, under mechanically ventilated conditions, make the poison hazard by far predominant over the explosion hazard. The rate of gas evolution is greatest from freshly broken surfaces, so is liable to increase whenever the cargo is disturbed, such as, during loading. Toxic if swallowed, by skin contact or by vapour inhalation. Only to be loaded under dry weather conditions. Keep as dry as reasonably practicable. Under deck in a mechanically ventilated cargo space. Clear of living quarters. ‘Separated from’ acids and alkalis.

This product is shipped in the appearance as green crystals, chemical formula is FeSO4 7H2O, and is of a low value.

As a great part of this product exists of water, this will be released when temperature is rising. This product is also air and moisture sensitive.

When not shipped in the correct packing, this product starts leaking. As this is a mildly acidic cargo, the paint coating of vessels and containers will be affected by brown rust stains. Also floor parts will be contaminated and must be repaired.

This product can only be accepted when packed in proved watertight packing, suited for a mildly acid product. In addition the floors and walls are to be protected with plywood and lined with plastic extending to about 30 cms up the container walls.

Shipment / Storage

Dust contamination must be avoided and containers to be used for this cargo shall be well cleaned. No other cargo must be stowed into the same container.

Risk factors

See IMSBC Code for overseas transport information.

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